Ultraviolet radiation produced by the sun is very abundant in the environment and it affects the skin. In fact, when the skin is reached by the UV rays, part of them is reflected, part is dispersed, but, above all, part is absorbed by the skin.
Consequently, this could have various acute or chronic effects. In fact, excessive exposure of the skin to ultraviolet rays without protection can lead to damage that can be mild, but also to serious health risks. The absorption of ultraviolet radiation by the skin leads to important biological effects that can induce molecular changes in the cells.
For example, the exposure to the sun can favor the onset of skin spots. In fact, upon exposure to UV, the skin implements various protection mechanisms, including changes to skin pigmentation. If, on the one hand, they can lead to the beloved tan, on the other hand these changes may also result in unsightly hyperpigmented spots. In particular, at the end of the summer, when the tan fades slowly, the signs of sun exposure remain. Very often, when the much-coveted summer tan fades, it leaves room for visible damages caused by the sun. One of the most frequent problems is given by the unsightly dark spots.
The formation of these spots is likely connected to the protective role that pigmentation is believed to play thanks to the action of melanin. This substance would both absorb the UV, avoiding direct DNA damage, and have an antioxidant effect with the function to neutralize free radicals.