To fight skin blemishes, different types of active ingredients for topical use can be employed. Generally, a cocktail of alpha and beta hydroxy-acids combined in various ways can be used, also associated with other substances with a brightening or exfoliating effect, to reduce the synthesis of melanin.
The most used are 70% glycolic acid, which performs an optimal exfoliating action; kojic acid, salicylic acid, (which especially performs a keratolytic action for the removal of dead cells from the surface); vitamin C or ascorbic acid.
For deeper peeling, retinoic acid-based lotions are generally used. Azelaic acid also validly inhibits tyrosinase and thus it is extremely effective in the treatment of skin spots. Finally, an effective active ingredient, although still little known, is pidobenzone: recommended for eliminating hyperpigmentation due to various causes, it has no side effects, and then it can be considered the most effective last generation spot-remover.